Exam 70-461 Querying Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014

Published: June 11, 2012
Languages: English, Chinese (Simplified), French, German, Japanese, Portuguese (Brazil)
Audiences: IT professionals
Technology: Microsoft SQL Server 2012/2014
Credit toward certification: MCP, MCSA, MCSE

Skills measured
This exam measures your ability to accomplish the technical tasks listed below. The percentages indicate the relative weight of each major topic area on the exam. The higher the percentage, the more questions you are likely to see on that content area on the exam. View video tutorials about the variety of question types on Microsoft exams.

Please note that the questions may test on, but will not be limited to, the topics described in the bulleted text.

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In December 2015, this exam was evaluated for applicability to both SQL Server 2012 and SQL Server 2014. It was determined that no updates to exam objectives were required.

Create database objects (20–25%)
Create and alter tables using T-SQL syntax (simple statements)
Create tables without using the built in tools; ALTER; DROP; ALTER COLUMN; CREATE
Create and alter views (simple statements)
Create indexed views; create views without using the built in tools; CREATE, ALTER, DROP
Design views
Ensure code non regression by keeping consistent signature for procedure, views and function (interfaces); security implications
Create and modify constraints (simple statements)
Create constraints on tables; define constraints; unique constraints; default constraints; primary and foreign key constraints
Create and alter DML triggers
Inserted and deleted tables; nested triggers; types of triggers; update functions; handle multiple rows in a session; performance implications of triggers

Preparation resources
Tables
Views
table_constraint (Transact-SQL)

Work with data (25–30%)
Query data by using SELECT statements
Use the ranking function to select top(X) rows for multiple categories in a single query; write and perform queries efficiently using the new (SQL 2005/8->) code items such as synonyms, and joins (except, intersect); implement logic which uses dynamic SQL and system metadata; write efficient, technically complex SQL queries, including all types of joins versus the use of derived tables; determine what code may or may not execute based on the tables provided; given a table with constraints, determine which statement set would load a table; use and understand different data access technologies; case versus isnull versus coalesce
Implement sub-queries
Identify problematic elements in query plans; pivot and unpivot; apply operator; cte statement; with statement
Implement data types
Use appropriate data; understand the uses and limitations of each data type; impact of GUID (newid, newsequentialid) on database performance, when to use what data type for columns
Implement aggregate queries
New analytic functions; grouping sets; spatial aggregates; apply ranking functions
Query and manage XML data
Understand XML datatypes and their schemas and interop w/, limitations and restrictions; implement XML schemas and handling of XML data; XML data: how to handle it in SQL Server and when and when not to use it, including XML namespaces; import and export XML; XML indexing

Preparation resources

SELECT (Transact-SQL)
INTO clause (Transact-SQL)
FROM (Transact-SQL)

Modify data (20–25%)
Create and alter stored procedures (simple statements)
Write a stored procedure to meet a given set of requirements; branching logic; create stored procedures and other programmatic objects; techniques for developing stored procedures; different types of storeproc result; create stored procedure for data access layer; program stored procedures, triggers, functions with T-SQL
Modify data by using INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements
Given a set of code with defaults, constraints, and triggers, determine the output of a set of DDL; know which SQL statements are best to solve common requirements; use output statement
Combine datasets
Difference between UNION and UNION all; case versus isnull versus coalesce; modify data by using MERGE statements
Work with functions
Understand deterministic, non-deterministic functions; scalar and table values; apply built-in scalar functions; create and alter user-defined functions (UDFs)

Preparation resources
CREATE PROCEDURE (Transact-SQL)
ALTER PROCEDURE (Transact-SQL)
INSERT (Transact-SQL)

Troubleshoot and optimize (25–30%)
Optimize queries
Understand statistics; read query plans; plan guides; DMVs; hints; statistics IO; dynamic vs. parameterized queries; describe the different join types (HASH, MERGE, LOOP) and describe the scenarios they would be used in
Manage transactions
Mark a transaction; understand begin tran, commit, and rollback; implicit vs explicit transactions; isolation levels; scope and type of locks; trancount
Evaluate the use of row-based operations vs. set-based operations
When to use cursors; impact of scalar UDFs; combine multiple DML operations
Implement error handling
Implement try/catch/throw; use set based rather than row based logic; transaction management

Preparation resources
Transaction statements (Transact-SQL)
SET TRANSACTION ISOLATION LEVEL (Transact-SQL)


QUESTION 1
You develop a database for a travel application. You need to design tables and other database objects.
You create the Airline_Schedules table.
You need to store the departure and arrival dates and times of flights along with time zone information.
What should you do?

A. Use the CAST function.
B. Use the DATE data type.
C. Use the FORMAT function.
D. Use an appropriate collation.
E. Use a user-defined table type.
F. Use the VARBINARY data type.
G. Use the DATETIME data type.
H. Use the DATETIME2 data type.
I. Use the DATETIMEOFFSET data type.
J. Use the TODATETIMEOFFSET function.

Answer: I

Explanation:
Reference: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ff848733.aspx
Reference: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb630289.aspx


QUESTION 2
You develop a database for a travel application. You need to design tables and other database objects. You create a stored procedure. You need to supply the stored procedure with multiple event names and their dates as parameters. What should you do?

A. Use the CAST function.
B. Use the DATE data type.
C. Use the FORMAT function.
D. Use an appropriate collation.
E. Use a user-defined table type.
F. Use the VARBINARY data type.
G. Use the DATETIME data type.
H. Use the DATETIME2 data type.
I. Use the DATETIMEOFFSET data type.
J. Use the TODATETIMEOFFSET function.

Answer: E


QUESTION 3
You administer a Microsoft SQL Server 2012 database that contains a table named OrderDetail. You
discover that the NCI_OrderDetail_CustomerID non-clustered index is fragmented. You need to
reduce fragmentation. You need to achieve this goal without taking the index offline. Which
Transact-SQL batch should you use?

A. CREATE INDEX NCI_OrderDetail_CustomerID ON OrderDetail.CustomerID WITH DROP
EXISTING
B. ALTER INDEX NCI_OrderDetail_CustomerID ON OrderDetail.CustomerID REORGANIZE
C. ALTER INDEX ALL ON OrderDetail REBUILD
D. ALTER INDEX NCI_OrderDetail_CustomerID ON OrderDetail.CustomerID REBUILD

Answer: B


QUESTION 4
You develop a Microsoft SQL Server 2012 database. The database is used by two web applications
that access a table named Products. You want to create an object that will prevent the applications
from accessing the table directly while still providing access to the required data. You need to
ensure that the following requirements are met:
* Future modifications to the table definition will not affect the applications’ ability to access data.
* The new object can accommodate data retrieval and data modification.
* You need to achieve this goal by using the minimum amount of changes to the existing
applications.
What should you create for each application?

A. views
B. table partitions
C. table-valued functions
D. stored procedures

Answer: A


QUESTION 5
You develop a Microsoft SQL Server 2012 database. You need to create a batch process that meets
the following requirements:
* Returns a result set based on supplied parameters.
* Enables the returned result set to perform a join with a table.
Which object should you use?

A. Inline user-defined function
B. Stored procedure
C. Table-valued user-defined function
D. Scalar user-defined function

Answer: C


QUESTION 6
You administer a Microsoft SQL Server 2012 database that has multiple tables in the Sales schema.
Some users must be prevented from deleting records in any of the tables in the Sales schema. You
need to manage users who are prevented from deleting records in the Sales schema. You need to
achieve this goal by using the minimum amount of administrative effort. What should you do?

A. Create a custom database role that includes the users. Deny Delete permissions on the Sales
schema for the custom database role.
B. Include the Sales schema as an owned schema for the db_denydatawriter role. Add the users
to the db_denydatawriter role.
C. Deny Delete permissions on each table in the Sales schema for each user.
D. Create a custom database role that includes the users. Deny Delete permissions on each table
in the Sales schema for the custom database role.

Answer: A


QUESTION 7
You work as a database administrator at ABC.com. ABC.com has a SQL Server 2012 database
infrastructure that contains a database named SalesDB.
The SalesDB database is used by an in-house application named ABCApp3. ABC.com users
report that ABCApp3 is functioning sluggishly.
You discover that application consumes considerable memory when it runs single-use dynamic
queries against the SalesDB database. You suspect that these queries are making excessive use
of procedure cache.
How would you reduce procedure cache if you cannot create new indexes on the SalesDB
database?

A. You should replace the queries with recursive stored procedures.
B. You should add make use of the INCLUDE clause in the index.
C. You should make use of the READPAST hint in the queries.
D. You should make use of the READCOMMITTED hint in the queries.
E. You should make use of the optimize for ad hoc workloads option.

Answer: E

Explanation:


QUESTION 8
You work as a database administrator at ABC.com. ABC.com has a SQL Server 2012 database
infrastructure that contains a database named ABCDB.
The ABCDB database is used by an in-house application named ABCApp3 that queries a readonly
table with a clustered index. ABC.com users report that ABCApp3 is functioning sluggishly.
You suspect query the application uses is causing the problem. You analyze the query and
discover that column referenced in the WHERE clause is not part of the clustered index. You also
notice that the query returns five columns, as well as a COUNT (*) clause grouped on the five columns.
How would you improve the efficiency of this query?

A. You should replace the query with recursive stored procedure.
B. You should replace the COUNT (*) clause with a persisted computed column.
C. You should create nonclustered indexes on all columns used in the query.
D. You should create a filtered index on the column used in the WHERE clause.
E. You should add an INCLUDE clause to the clustered index.
F. You should create a columnstore index on all columns used in the query.
G. You should create a unique clustered index on the column used in the WHERE clause.

Answer: F

Explanation:

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